Download e-book for iPad: Anaphora and Definite Descriptions: Two Applications of by Jaakko Hintikka

By Jaakko Hintikka

ISBN-10: 9027720568

ISBN-13: 9789027720566

ISBN-10: 9400954107

ISBN-13: 9789400954106

I n order to understand correctly what we're doing during this ebook it is crucial to achieve that our method of linguistic theorizing differs from the existing perspectives. Our method may be defined through indicating what distinguishes it from the methodological rules present in theoretical linguistics, which I give some thought to heavily inaccurate. Linguists regularly construe their activity at present as that of constructing exceptionless generalizations from specific examples. This explanatory procedure is inaccurate in different other ways. It presupposes that we will be able to have "intuitions" approximately specific examples, frequently examples invented by way of the linguist himself or herself, trustworthy and sharp adequate to function a foundation of sharp generalizations. It additionally presupposes that we can't have both trustworthy direct entry to common linguistic regularities. either assumptions seem to me super doubtful, and the 1st of them has in impression been challenged by way of linguists like Dwight Bol inger. there's additionally a few facts that the measure of unanimity between linguists is reasonably low in terms of much less transparent situations, even in reference to such really basic questions as grammaticality (acceptability). for that reason we've got attempted to depend extra on quotations from modern fiction, newspapers and magazines than on linguists' and philosophers' advert hoc examples. I additionally locate it unusual that a few of the similar linguists as think that all of us own innate rules approximately common features of humanly attainable grammars think that we will have entry to them purely through their specific consequences.

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Additional info for Anaphora and Definite Descriptions: Two Applications of Game-Theoretical Semantics

Sample text

GTS when applied to natural languages can be extended to enable us to treat a large number of phenomena other than quantifiers and propositional connectives. Among the other types of expressions for which one can easily develop a game-theoretical semantics there are the following: (i) Modal and intensional concepts can be handled by combining GTS with a suitable version of possible-worlds semantics. At each stage of a semantical game, the players are then facing not only a sentence but also a world, which can be changed in a move.

The same contrast applies of course to natural-language sentences like (14). For instance, if (14) is (18) George knew that the author of Waverly is Scott the two readings will be, in a semiformal formulation, (19) (Ex)(x Waverley authored Waverley & (Ay)(y authored + y=x) & George knew that (x = Scott) ) and (20) George knew that (Ex) (x authored Waverley & (Ay) (y authored Waverley + y=x) & x = Scott). Here (19) results from taking the definite description to have a primary occurrence and (20) from taking it to have a secondary occurrence.

3 However, in his actual treatment Strawson in effect uses concepts like presupposition as attributes of utterances of a single sentence. In general, in spite of his insightful emphasis on the discourse character of several interesting logical and semantica~ phenomena, Strawson fails almost totally to build any systematic theory of the subject. These remarks also provide a key to handling the problems with Russell's theory to which Strawson calls our attention. They will be a part of the logic and semantics of discourse, as distinguished from the logic and semantics of isolated propositions (sentences).

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Anaphora and Definite Descriptions: Two Applications of Game-Theoretical Semantics by Jaakko Hintikka

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