Download PDF by Achille C. Varzi: An Essay in Universal Semantics

By Achille C. Varzi

ISBN-10: 9048151864

ISBN-13: 9789048151868

ISBN-10: 9401592438

ISBN-13: 9789401592437

Like the magazine TOPOl, the TOPOl Library relies at the assumption that philosophy is a full of life, provocative, pleasant task, which continuously demanding situations our inherited behavior, painstakingly elaborates on how issues might be diverse, in different tales, in counterfactual events, in replacement attainable worlds. no matter what its ideology, even if with the motive of uncovering a more true constitution of fact or of capturing our nervousness, of revealing myths or of following them via, the result of philosophical job is usually the destabilizing, unsettling new release of doubts, of objections, of criticisms. It follows that this task is intrinsically a discussion, that philosophy is in the beginning philosophical dialogue, that it calls for bringing out conflicting issues of view, paying cautious, sympathetic recognition to their constitution, and utilizing this dialectic to articulate one's technique, to make it richer, extra considerate, extra open to version and play. And it follows that the spirit which one brings to this job needs to be certainly one of tolerance, of consistently suspecting one's personal blindness and for that reason having a look with independent eye in each comer, with out fearing to go a (fallible) judgment on what's there but in addition with out failing to teach curiosity and respect.

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1, this will account for the intuition that the interpretation of such expressions may depend on the values of the variables occurring therein. I. ,v) as the joint-denial quantifier 'for anything v, neither ... nor', all other constant symbols having constant denotations of the right type. (Again, this is the interpretation that justifies the relative definitions of '-,', 'v', ... 4(B). c-+Dl behaves as a binary operation that yields the value 1 23 This way of exploiting the intensional character of quantifiers and other variable binders within a categorial setting was first pointed out in Lewis [1970] (though Lewis [1983a] marks a change of view in the spirit of Cresswell [1977], recommending that variable-binding be treated outside the scope of functional application).

In practice, one is often interested only in the study of models which agree in assigning the same, fixed basic domain to certain basic categories-say, only models in which Do (if defined) is a fixed set of truth-values. £. by specifying the desired conditions. £. as the only admissible models, and different assumptions will correspond to different selections. 2o I shall return to these general issues in the next chapter, when the overall picture will be more complete. 2 includes as a special case those models that do not involve any kind of contextdependence.

But that would amount to construing U'RI itself as a set of approximate interpretations. and we have seen that such a course would not yield a genuine generalization of standard semantics. Construing U'RI as a set of approximate interpretations is essentially equivalent to construing M as a relational model. And all relational models are sharp. 29 For simplicity. I write U and instead of U\; and respectively. n n\;. FOUNDATIONS 41 [Proof Consider (4). c is true by definition. c has a supremum UX, define a model MU=(dU,hu,Iu) by setting (i) dU(~,t)=U{d(~,t): MEX} for all (~,t)EVd, (ii) hU(x,y)=U{h(x,y): MEX} for all (x,y)EVh, and (iii) Itu=U{It : MEX} for all tEVE.

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An Essay in Universal Semantics by Achille C. Varzi

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